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Title: Антропогенні загрози дендропарку «Софіївка»
Other Titles: Anthropogenic threats to the arboretum "Sofiyivka"
Authors: Лавров, Віталій Васильович
Lavrov, Vitalii
Житовоз, Альона Володимирівна
Zhytovoz, Alona
Грабовська, Тетяна Олександрівна
Grabovska, Tetiana
Keywords: Дендропарк «Софіївка»;вади інфраструктури рекреації;антропогенні загрози;нерегульована рекреація;рекреаційна дигресія екосистем;просторове поширення наслідків;Dendropark "Sofiyivka";defects of recreation infrastructure;anthropogenic threats;unregulated recreation;recreational degression of ecosystems;spatial spread of consequences
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Запорізький національний університет
Citation: Лавров В.В. Антропогенні загрози дендропарку «Софіївка» / В.В.Лавров, А.В.Житовоз, Т.О.Грабовська // Питання біоіндикації та екології: Р. 1 Природні і техногенні екосистеми . – 2015. – Вип. 20, № 2 . – С. 3-17.
Abstract: Виявлено та охарактеризовано основні антропогенні загрози екосистемам дендропарку «Софіївка»: витоптування рослинного і ґрунтового покриву, площинну і вертикальну ерозію грунту, забруднення гідрологічної мережі скидами і продуктами ерозії, механічне і пірологічне пошкодження дерев, інвазія рудерантів. З’ясовано їх походження, просторове поширення, механізми і ступінь впливу на структурні компоненти екосистем дендропарку, а також підсилюючі чинники або умови. Прояви і стадії рекреаційної дигресії екосистем проаналізовано залежно від рельєфу, об’єктів інфраструктури та зон рекреаційної привабливості: найбільша, середня, низька. Брали до уваги також причини виникнення нерегульованої рекреації та структуру доріжково-стежкової мережі: її поширення по території, співвідношення довжини та щільності доріг і доріжок з різним покриттям, доцільних і недоцільних стежок.
Description: Dendrological Park of the NAS of Ukraine "Sofiyivka" is recognized in Ukraine and far beyond its borders leading environmental, cultural and research centre. Collection the arboretum has 3323 taxons. This motivates the considerable interest of scientists, nature conservationists and the public, which makes a substantial load on its ecosystems and requires proper attention. However, studies about the park focusing primarily on the issues of introduction and acclimatization, breeding and rearing introduced in the right-Bank Forest-steppe of Ukraine plants and their use in culture, different areas of parks study, park development and enrichment of species diversity in the region. Research on the impact of human activities on the ecosystems and biota of the park is almost absent. Although our experience shows that they are significant in the territories natural reserved fund. So the aim of the study was to identify and characterize the main anthropogenic threats to the ecosystems of the arboretum "Sofiyivka", to find out their spatial distribution. The study was carried out on the principles of comparative ecology using the methods of forest and soil erosion sciences. We used materials of forest inventory data, cartographic data, positioning system Google Earth and the program "XCARTA". We indicated stages zones of recreational digression – moderate (I), middle (II) and intense (III). The network of trails is considered as one of the visual indicators of the infrastructure failure of recreational and natural systems and the flaws of visitors’ ecological culture. We marked "expedient trails" that should be considered in the development of infrastructure, and "inexpedient trails", which are consequences of unregulated recreation and violation of visiting the arboretum. The causes of unregulated recreation, structure and characteristics path-trail network: its distribution on the territory, the relief elements, the ratio of the length and density of roads and paths with differing covers, expedient and inexpedient trails were taken into consideration. It is established that in the arboretum "Sofiyivka" is rather well developed and equipped infrastructure for visitors. However, there are a number of negative factors of different origin that violate the conditions of a unique fund of plant and animal species existence: trampling vegetation and soil cover, surface and vertical soil erosion, hydrological network contamination with dumping and products of erosion, mechanical and fire damage trees, weed invasion. Their origin, spatial distribution, mechanisms and degree of influence on the structural components of the ecosystems of the arboretum, as well as reinforcing factors or conditions are determined. Manifestations and stages of recreational ecosystems digression have been analyzed depending on the relief, infrastructure and recreational attractiveness zones objects. There were the largest (6,3 ha 3,7 %), medium (73,8 ha 43,6 %), low (89,3 ha 52,7 %) zones. Out of a planned network of paved paths emerged 652 m trails (6,3 % of all network ways). Excessive recreation load undergo structural components of the arboretum that are most attractive. Activity digressive process increases if the area is located on steep (over 20°) slopes. Trails trampled along the slopes also contribute directing and concentration of surface runoff rainwater and increase their destructive power. This leads to surface and even vertical soil erosion. To reduce anthropogenic threats to ecosystems of the arboretum, it is advisable first of all to prevent unregulated recreation and minimize violations of visitors behavior by improving control. It is necessary to harmonize the network of roads, alleys, observation platforms and other places (directions, width, area, fences, etc.) – in short the entire infrastructure of recreation and new gaining knowledge – with the existing directions of tourists movement based on their number and demand. The soil on expedient trails, especially on steep, eroded slopes, is necessary to protect with the hard surface. Reliable protection from invasion weeds from adjacent lands may be the edge of dense bushes in the undergrowth. Protection is required in the hydrographic network, especially the Upper Pond, contaminated runoff from urban sewage and adjacent slopes. Erosion planting or engineering structures will prevent development of the ravine.
metadata.dc.identifier.udc: 630*431.3:630*18:630*425:630*561.24
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