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Title: Математичні моделі в економічних теоріях
Other Titles: Mathematical models in economics
Authors: Стригіна, Оксана Анатоліївна
Strygina, Oksana
Keywords: аналіз;формування;математичні моделі;економічні теорії;моделювання;analyze;formation;mathematics models;economics theories;model
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Білоцерківський НАУ
Citation: Стригіна О.А. Математичні моделі в економічних теоріях / О.А. Стригіна // Економіка та управління АПК: зб-к наукових праць. - Біла Церква: БНАУ, 2017. - Вип. 2 (137). - С. 177-182.
Abstract: Економічні системи постійно розвиваються і ускладнюються, змінюється їхня структура, а іноді і зміст, що пов’язано з науково-технічним прогресом. Як результат, низка методів стають застарілими або потребують коригування. Водночас науково-технічний прогрес впливає і на математичні методи, оскільки поява та удосконалення електронно-обчислювальних машин зробило можливим широке використання методів, описаних раніше лише теоретично, чи які застосовувалися лише для невеликих прикладних задач. Подано аналіз застосування математики в економічних теоріях.
Description: The economic systems develop and become complicated, their structure changes, and sometimes and content, conditioned by scientific and technical progress. It does out-of-date much methods that were used before, or requires their adjustment. In the same time scientific and technical progress influences on mathematical methods, as appearance and improvement of electronic calculable machines did possible deployment of the methods described before only in theory, or were used only for the small applied tasks. In the article the considered analysis of the use of mathematics is in economic theories. The aim of the article is an estimation of efficiency of the use of mathematical models in an economy in the context of realization of research of economic process. The real objects are very difficult, that is why for their study create models copies of the real objects, that is studied. From one side, models must be accessible for a study, in force what they must not be very difficult is means that they unavoidable will be only then simplified copies. But from other side, conclusions that is got at their study we want to spread on the real objects-prototypes, that is, a model must recreate the substantial line the real object that is studied. In scientific research different models are used: natural (for example, in a laboratory build a little source and above him build the copy of GES in a scale 1: 100) and abstract; physical (from transformers, resistances, voltmeters and other); mathematical (from variables, functions, in equalities and others). The construction of mathematical models is named a mathematical design. Exactly through the stowage of mathematical models mathematics is used in scientific researches in other sciences. It very brightly noticeably in economic science. In 60th of past century a discussion developed about mathematical methods in an economy. For example, an academician Nemchinov distinguished five base methods of research at planning: 1) balance method; 2) methods of mathematical design; 3) vectorial-matrix method; 4) methods of economic-mathematical multipliers ( optimal public estimations); 5) method of progressive approximation. In the same time an academician Kantorovich distinguished mathematical methods in four groups: – macroeconomic models, where took a balance method and models of demand; – are models of cooperation of economic subdivisions (on the basis of game theory); - it is a linear design, including the series of tasks, a bit differ from the classic linear programming; – models of optimization, that go out outside a linear design (dynamic, nonlinear, integeral and stochastic programming. Economic tasks are a task with the large number of unknown, that have different dynamic copulas and mutual relations. That is economic tasks multidimensional, and even being presented in form the set of inequalities and equalizations, cannot be decided by ordinary mathematical methods. In the same time for a management it is needed on possibility the least of variants and it is desirable the best. Therefore the second feature of economic tasks is that it tasks are extreme, that envisages the presence of objective function in turn. The task of the optimal planning, and also model of inter-branch balance, or model of Leontieva, American economist, is considered in the article. The article deals with analyze of using mathematics in the economics theories.
ISSN: 2310-9262
metadata.dc.identifier.udc: 330.4.
Appears in Collections:Наукові публікації

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